Xinjiang weather is a temperate extreme continental, with a large temperature difference between day and night, sufficient sunshine time (annual sunshine time is 2500-3500 hours), little precipitation, and dry weather. The average yearly rainfall in Xinjiang is about 150 mm, but there is a big difference in moisture in different regions. The temperature in Southern Xinjiang is higher than in Northern Xinjiang, and the precipitation in North Xinjiang is higher than that in Southern Xinjiang. In the coldest month (January), the average temperature is - 20 ℃ in the Junggar Basin. The absolute minimum temperature in Fuyun County on the northern edge of the basin once reached - 50.15 ℃, one of China's coldest areas. In the hottest month (July), the average temperature in Turpan, known as "Huozhou ( Fire Continent )," is above 33 ℃, and the absolute maximum temperature once reached 49.6 ℃, ranking the first in China. Because of the significant temperature difference between spring and summer and autumn and winter in most of Xinjiang, there has always been a saying that " wear fur coat as early as possible, wear gauze at noon and eat watermelon around the stove." Xinjiang travel is favored by people, which should be attributed to Xinjiang's unique climate conditions.
Annual Average Temperature in Top Destinations of Xinjiang
|Annual Average Temperature||Urumqi||Turpan||Kashgar||Kanas Lake||Ili|
|January||-8 ℃||-6 ℃||-10 ℃||-22 ℃||-10 ℃|
|February||-11 ℃||-10 ℃||-9 ℃||-22 ℃||-15 ℃|
|March||7 ℃||8 ℃||6 ℃||-10 ℃||13 ℃|
|April||17 ℃||24 ℃||18 ℃||14 ℃||18 ℃|
|May||25 ℃||29 ℃||27 ℃||19 ℃||26 ℃|
|June||31 ℃||31 ℃||26 ℃||25 ℃||30 ℃|
|July||29 ℃||30 ℃||30 ℃||27 ℃||35 ℃|
|August||28 ℃||35 ℃||27 ℃||28 ℃||28 ℃|
|September||23 ℃||25 ℃||18 ℃||19 ℃||23 ℃|
|October||14 ℃||10 ℃||9 ℃||-1 ℃||14 ℃|
|November||- 5 ℃||2 ℃||-1 ℃||-12 ℃||-3 ℃|
|December||-13 ℃||- 8 ℃||-9 ℃||-21 ℃||-13 ℃|
The dry climate in Xinjiang also characterized by less precipitation. The annual rainfall in Northern Xinjiang is about 200 millimeters, nearly half of the yearly rainfall in North China; the moisture in Southern Xinjiang is less than 100 millimeters. The interior of the Tarim Basin is less than twenty millimeters. In the Turpan Basin, it rains on average only 11 days a year, and the annual rainfall is only 12.6 mm. Generally, each rain can only wet the ground at best. As for the hinterland of the desert, sometimes the rain does not fall all year round. However, there are also places with more precipitation in Xinjiang, mainly in the Tianshan Mountains and the Altai Mountains, where it is snowy in winter and spring. It is rainy in summer and autumn air is relatively humid. The annual precipitation in the Tianshan Mountains is about 500 millimeters, almost the same as the North China Plain. Among them, the Gongnais Forest area is about 800 mm, roughly equal to the Huaihe River Basin's annual rainfall. These mountainous areas have abundant rain and have a relatively stable yearly rainfall, which provides very favorable conditions for agricultural irrigation water in the valleys of the mountain basins and the Piedmont's oasis plains.
The second characteristic of Xinjiang's climate is cold in winter and hot in summer. In winter, because of the invasion of Siberian cold air, several cold waves in Xinjiang significantly reduce the temperature every winter. And the time of being attacked by the general cold air is more. Because of this, winter temperatures in all parts of Xinjiang, especially northern Xinjiang, are generally low. For example, comparing Urumqi with similar latitudes to Marseilles in France, the average temperature in Marseilles in January was 6-7 degrees Celsius. Wrapped in silver, drip into ice—the winter scene of the North-land. The coldest time in Ulu Daqi is more than 20 degrees below zero, and there has been an extreme minimum temperature of 41.5 degrees below zero in history.
In Altay, the winter is more prolonged and colder. On 21st February 1960, Fuyun County in the Altay Region experienced a low temperature of minus 51.5 degrees, setting a national minimum temperature record. This record has maintained for nine years. It was only on 13th February 1969 that it refreshed by the low temperature of minus 52.3 degrees in Mohe Town, Heilongjiang Province.
In Summer, the average temperature in Nothern Xinjiang is about 20-25 ℃. When the sun is shining fiercely in Junger Basin, the temperature in the mountain area is about 15 ℃, the best summer resort. Most of the Southern Xinjiang Plain's oases are 25-27 ℃, slightly higher than those in the Northern China Plain ( 23-25 ℃). The most prominent is Turpan, where the warmest month (July) has an average temperature of 40 degrees, and the extreme maximum heat has reached 49.6 degrees, ranking first in the country. If the day with the highest temperature more significant than 25 degrees is designated as a hot day, Turpan will have an average of 100 hot days a year, ranking first in the country. The summer temperature in Turpan is even higher than Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing, which are known as the three stoves, but the former is dry and hot, hot in the day, and cold in the morning and evening; At the same time, the latter is hot and humid and hot, day and night. Therefore, it is better to be under the Flame Mountain in the summer, than in the Yangtze River. As for the northern Xinjiang, the summer is relatively cool. Therefore, this is the golden season for Xinjiang summer tourism.
Sufficient sunshine is also the main feature of Xinjiang's climate. The sunshine duration in Xinjiang is between 2,5000 and 3,500 hours, which ranks among the top in all provinces and regions in China. Abundant sunshine will enhance the photosynthesis of floras, and it has a good effect on the growth and development of cotton and other light-growth crops.
Xinjiang has sufficient sunlight, but it also receives a large amount of total solar radiation energy, which ranks second in the country after the Tibetan Plateau. According to estimates, the total solar radiation energy obtained in Xinjiang throughout the year is one hundred times greater than the full generator capacity of the world in 1980. But the situation in Xinjiang is different; generally, the annual total radiation in Xinjiang gradually decreases from southeast to northwest as the latitude increases. The place with the most extensive yearly total pollution is Hami, and the smallest is Wusu, Jinghe, Karamay in northern Xinjiang, which is related to the amount of local sand. In Khotan, the total solar radiation is also relatively reduced, due to the long time of floating dust and flying sand.
There are many mountain passes and narrow roads in Xinjiang, and strong winds are likely to appear when cold air invades. It is also a feature of Xinjiang's climate. In the "Thirty Mile Wind Zone" of Turpan along the Lanzhou - Xinjiang Railway and "Hundred Mile Wind Zone" of Hami, there were more than one hundred days of strong winds above grade 8 throughout the year, and the accidents have happened in which a hurricane blocked the train. Karamay also has as many as 75 days of strong winds throughout the year. So many strong winds hinder railway transportation and oil production. Windy winds are harmful and beneficial. If wind energy is converted into heat and electricity, it will benefit humankind. According to the current technological level of the world, the total power available in seven windy areas such as Xinjiang's "Thirty Mile Wind Area" is 7.1 million watts, equivalent to four times the amount of electricity generated in 1978 in Xinjiang. The wind energy advantages are inexhaustible and will not cause environmental pollution, making it worth developing and using.
The weather in Xinjiang is different from the cities of inland in China, the temperature from May to June in daytime is is just like early Spring, the flowers are blooming in the grassland and Sayram Lake. the temperature from July to September is less than 30 degrees maximum, and in the evening only about 20 degrees so it is very comfortable (excluding Turpan, which is also called fire-land, it can be 45 degree, even higher. If you know The flaming mountain described in the Journey to the west then you can imagine). Then the best time to Xinjiang is from April to October.